Ruby is a dynamic, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity. It has an elegant syntax that is natural to read and easy to write.
Sinatra is an open source web application framework and domain-specific language written in Ruby. It is an alternative to other Ruby web application frameworks such as Ruby on Rails, Merb, Nitro, and Camping.
Ruby on Rails, also known as RoR or Rails, is a web application framework written in the open source programming language Ruby, following the paradigm architecture of Model View Controller (MVC). Rails provides a "Full Stack" meaning the web server is built into the application allowing a monolithic or micro service arcitechture for your web site, web applications, or Software as a Service (SaaS) application.
R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. R can be considered as a different implementation of S. There are some important differences, but much code written for S runs unaltered under R.
PHP is a server-side scripting language designed primarily for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Development Team. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
Vala is a programming language using modern high level abstractions without imposing additional runtime requirements and without using a different ABI compared to applications and libraries written in C. Vala uses the GObject type system and has additional code generation routines that make targeting the GNOME stack simple. Vala has many other uses where native binaries are required.